It is important to keep in mind the kind of fishes to be kept in an aquarium before purchasing the tank. The variety of fish to be kept in an aquarium will decide the size of the tank needed as some varieties grow by an inch or two and other tropical fish can grow 12 or 13 inches.
Decide the area and location for tank placement. This will decide the size of the tank. It is also better to buy a tank cover and a suitable stand. An ideal moderate freshwater aquarium setup uses a twenty or twenty five-gallon tank. Place the aquarium away from doors and windows where the light and temperature of the tank is not affected. This could also lead to green algae problems.
Decide the filtration system to be used as a good filter keeps the water clean and pure for the fishes. The filters should remove common impurities from water and reduce the toxins in it. There are three main types of filtration: biological, mechanical, and chemical. Biological filters are effective as they reduce the toxins and ammonia which is the byproduct when the fish breathe or urinate. Mechanical filtration is excellent for keeping the water clear and free of debris. Chemical filters are useful in getting rid of the yellow color that develops in water. The most common is under gravel filters or power filters that hang on the back of the tank. It should have a strong air pump or powerhead to circulate enough water. They are easy to maintain.
Then, a thermostatic heater is installed to ensure that the water is at the desired temperature of about 26°C. The testing kit has to be installed to test the pH level of water which is responsible for the acidity or the alkalinity of water. This ensures a healthy environment for fishes.
Now is the time to put the substrate of approximately 2-3 inches in the tank which is essential to a healthy aquarium. Choose gravel or sand and rinse and wash them thoroughly. Sand is most favorable for fishes that like to burrow but it requires to be stirred to prevent dead spots that can destroy the tank.
After this decoration and lighting of the tank is done. Aquarium lights are Kelvin rated between 5500-6700K. Anything lower will give an algae problem. Place in any plants and other fancy things. Aquarium plants and decorative tunnels and caves are available which make the fishes feel safe and give them the place to hide. Decorations should be safe and non-toxic.
Add water to the aquarium which is at room temperature. Don’t fill up the aquarium otherwise the water will spill while moving the stuff in the aquarium. A water conditioner is recommended as it neutralizes chlorine and heavy metals present in tap water.
Now, turn on the aquarium and let it run. The final part is introducing the fish. The fishes have to be poured with patience and tact so that they are not shocked. Fill the bag or package with the water from the tank little by little and empty the old water little by little, so that the fish can adjust to the change. Add one or two fishes at a time. Don’t feed your fish on the first day. They probably wouldn’t eat any food on the first day anyway. Let them get acquainted with their new home.